by Teddy Jacobson
Monday, November 15, 2004
Makarov - Part 1
THIS WILL BE A MULTIPLE PART COMMENTARY ABOUT THE RUSSIAN MAKAROV SEMI AUTO PISTOL AND IT WILL BE IN DEPTH.
Through out history Russia has always had a great deal of land to protect. In the late 1800 hundreds Russia purchased a great many handguns from other countries. A Russian named Alex Gorlov came to the United States and bought weapons from Gatling and from Colt in Ct. He also placed an order for Nagant revolvers that were of Belgium manufacture..
Another Russian who was a gun design engineer of semi auto pistols was a man named Sergey Korovin, this was in the time of World War 1 and he developed the Tula Korovin pocket pistol. Most all of the Russian handguns that were developed and used were very small calibers, and were not very suitable for a modern army combat man that depended on stopping power.
There was another Russian gun design engineer named Fedor Tokarev, who mainly designed rifles and it was he who designed and engineered the Tokarev semi auto pistol in 7.62 caliber, it was also known as the TT-33 .
Early in 1941, Russia was in deep trouble as they did not have the correct and proper weapons that could be used to stop the German invasion of Mother Russia. It was panic city and the Russians used anything they could get their hands on, but their handgun was still the under powered Tokarev TT-33 . The Russians were in serious trouble and lost a tremendous amount of civillian and military people to Hitlers superior invading army.
In 1945 an assembled group of Russian gun design engineers included one Nikolai Makarov. Russia was in desperate need of a new semi auto handgun that was completely reliable, the guide lines were set and it had to be easy to manufacture, it had to be inexpensive, and it had to be able to work flawlessly in freezing sub zero temperatures as well as hot climates.
The design engineers instructions were, it had to be a design of simplicity, because this new pistol regardless of which manufacturing plant it was made in, had to have the advantage that the interchangeability of its parts was mandatory. Russia's tremendous big break and advancement came when they captured German machinery and equipment along with live cooperating German arms engineers and personnel. This gave the Russian's a great leap forward into the future in manufacturing developement as the Germans were far more advanced in weapons engineering and knew how to mass produce everything.
This was how the Russian Makarov pistol was not only designed and manufactured but was adopted in the 1950's era of time by the Russian military because it was a truly superb pistol. The Russians had so many soviet bloc countries to think about and they all adopted the new 9x18mm Russian caliber. The new Russian Makarov in this new caliber was now the standard of not only the Russian army but it was used and adopted by all the soviet bloc countries as their military sidearm. This new 9x18mm Russian caliber is rated at 24,100 psi. A 380 acp (9x17mm) cartridge is rated at 18,900 psi. A 9mm (9x19mm) luger cartridge is rated at a maximum of 35,000 psi.
THIS MAKAROV COMMENTARY WILL BE CONTINUED TOMORROW IN PART 2 AND I WILL CONTINUE IT THIS WEEK UNTIL IT IS FINISHED. THIS WILL BE VERY DETAILED AND WILL BE VERY THOROUGH FOR EVERYONE TO UNDERSTAND, NOT ONLY HOW THIS MAKAROV HAS BEEN DEVELOPED BUT I WILL EXPLAIN IT ALL IN AS MANY COMMENTARY PARTS AS IS NECESSARY. I SUGGEST YOU PRINT THIS SERIES AND PUT IT IN A BINDER FOR FUTURE REFERENCE.
AUTHORS PERSONAL NOTATION: This commentary as well as all my previous commentaries are my personal opinion only and my own viewpoint. I mean what I say and I say what I mean. I have no personal agenda and I lie for no one and I am certainly not motivated by BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. I do all this because I want to help educate those that are sincere and really want to learn the truth.
Tuesday, November 16, 2004
Makarov - Part 2
The 9x18mm Russian Makarov is a direct blow back design. You can "NOT" convert this pistol to safely work with a 9mm Luger caliber (9x19mm). The 9mm Luger or Parabellum (the word Parabellum is Latin and it means "FOR WAR") as it is called should be used in a locked breech designed pistol.
Buying a box of ammo for your 9x18mm Russian Makarov you can expect a 90 grain (refers to weight of the bullet) bullet to achieve approx. 1000 FPS. A Makarov pistol of any origin was almost unknown of in the United States about 13 years ago. I am quite familiar with most Makarovs coming from different countries of origin, such as Russia, Bulgaria, East Germany, and of course the Chinese version. I do not see many Chinese Makarovs.
All of the East German Makarovs imported into this country are used and some are still in very good condition. I have always considered the East German Makarov to be the very best of all the imports. Finding one today is not that easy. The East German Makarovs were used by the East German Police. If I could buy just one Makarov today it would be the East German model if I could find one in mint condition and I would have it hard Chromed. My second choice would be Bulgaria. I would only buy it in 9x18mm caliber in the 8 shot version. There are others out there in a wide body high capacity design and I do not recommend them. There are some in 380 acp caliber and I would not recommend them if I could get 9x18mm caliber.
The Makarov pistol resembles the Walther PP, and the initial take down is very similar. You need to pull down the front of the trigger guard on either the Walther or the Makarov, aside from this feature its a completely different internal design and the Makarov is far more reliable than the German Walther in feeding and extraction.
The Soviet made Makarov including the magazine and springs has a total of about 30 parts. A German Walther whether it is a PP, PPK, or PPK/S contains more than 50 parts which includes the magazine and springs.
If I had to point out the most common denominator of both the Makarov and the Walther, it would be the fixed barrel which is permanently attached to the frame which gives these pistols the advantage of being more accurate that many other type designs using a floating or movable barrel design. The other pistol that comes to mind which is my favorite is the HK P7 M8, and the HK P7 M13 also having a fixed barrel design which is super accurate.
There are a number of countries now making these Makarovs. The down side to the imported Russian made Makarov is the adjustable rear sight. Thanks to the Clinton administration who sent all the replacement parts back to Russia, which has caused untold grief if you were to break the rear sight, there are no current rear sight replacements that I know of. That is what I have been told by doing extensive research of the Russian parts years ago.
I have had to repair many of these adjustable rear sights that were broken by making a plate using hardened flat steel stock and using screws to piece it back together. I had to drill and tap holes using either size 72 or 80 stainless steel screws to hold it together, this is not an easy job and certainly should not be attempted by a "NEWBIE SMITH" , it was a nitemare, as parts of the sight are hollow. I will no longer take in jobs like this.
These problems with the adjustable Russian rear sight usually happen when some one tries to disassemble the rear sight, in order to remove it off the slide to plate or refinish the slide. They do not realize that the main cross pin which is hollow and goes thru both legs of the rear sight, this cross pin is FLARED on both ends. You must very carefully cut the flared end off "BEFORE YOU EVER" try to drive the pin out "OR" you will break the leg of the adjustable Russian rear sight right off instantly. This usually happens when a person working for a plater attempts to remove the rear sight not understanding the problem.
This rear sight problem only effects the Russian made adjustable rear sight model, which is the very type of Makarov that I own. All the other Makarovs from different Soviet bloc countries are not effected because they use fixed rear sights. There is no way to convert the Russian model to adapt it to install the tiny fixed rear sight used by everyone else.
Wednesday, November 17, 2004
Makarov - Part 3
I WANT TO DEDICATE THIS ENTIRE MAKAROV SERIES OF ARTICLES TO MY FRIEND "JOHN DRAKE" WHO DIED SUNDAY NOV. 14, 2004 IN GALVESTON, TEXAS. I WILL MISS HIM. JOHN WENT HOME.
The Soviet made Makarov visually looks like the German Walther PP series of handguns, but I am now going to set the record straight once and for all.
Besides the removal of the slide from the frame in the same manor, and the fixed barrel design, the similarities go no further.
POINT OF FACT 1A. The Makarov does not have a loaded chamber indicator like the German Walther series.
POINT OF FACT 2B. The thumb safety on the Makarov is pushed in the "UP" position in order to initiate a safe condition, where the German Walthers thumb safety must be rotated "DOWN" in order to achieve a safe condition.
POINT OF FACT 3C. The Makarov uses a flat leaf mainspring, where the Walther pistols use a coil main spring. (main spring is also called a hammer spring)
POINT OF FACT 4D. The Russian Makarov as with all copies use a Trigger, Hammer, and Sear that have a totally different design compared to the Walther pistols.
POINT OF FACT 5E. The Makarov pistols use a different type of breech face and the extractor system is totally different and it is far more rugged and designed to withstand extreme service that is required for a military sidearm.
POINT OF FACT 6F. The ejector in the Makarov is part of the manually operated slide stop and it is designed for extreme service. The German Walther has no manually operated slide stop. In order to release the slide of the Walther that is locked back in the rear position, the magazine must be lowered or removed.
POINT OF FACT 7G. The magazine lock and release on the Makarov is located at the bottom rear of the magazine well. The German Walther has a magazine release button which is located on the left side of the frame below the slide in the upper portion of the left grip panel.
You are now starting to see we are not comparing apples to apples as there are very few similarities between these two very different designs .
The Russian military had major requirements and problems with supplying this Makarov not only to their own military, but they had to supply this Soviet pistol to all the Warsaw Pact countries everywhere.
They used stamped parts where ever possible, where as if you compare it to the German Walther they used many fully machined parts. Looking at these two very different handguns, the Makarov vs. the Walther PP, PPK, PPK/S, it is my personal opinion based on my experience and viewpoint that the Russian Makarov design is with out question far superior in every way to the Walther design.
Russian military handgun design engineers realized that the 380 acp cartridge was not adequate in stopping power for a military pistol. A 380 acp pistol in years past was a very poor man stopper using ammunition technology of years ago. They did not have the advancement of powders and bullet design to achieve a satisfactory load that would be superior in 380 acp caliber.
The Russians are no fools, they needed a pistol that was simple and something that was easy to manufacture in a direct blowback design that could be made cheaply and efficiently and they needed the most powerful cartridge they could use. The result was the 9x18mm Russian caliber. If the Russians would have made a pistol with a locked breech design in 9mm Luger (9x19mm) caliber it would have cost a great deal more money and it would have been a much more complicated design. At that point in time their resources were limited.
PLEASE NOTE: For so many of you that emailed me and requested an indepth commentary about the Makarov, I am keeping my promise. When this series is completed you will know more about the Makarov than all the "EXPERTS" . I have no agenda other than the truth. I have no intention of writing articles for monetary compensation for publications where a person with a fraction of my knowledge would be allowed to scrutinize and change my article to satisfy his or her agenda, for what ever reason. Whether it would be to justify their salary or to save money or protect advertisers. I have been down that road before and I did not like the ride, its a dead end. If you sincerely want the truth and no nonsense facts you have come to the right place.
Thursday, November 18, 2004
Makarov - Part 4
Lets go back to the end of World War II, The Russian army also known as the Red Army captured the German Walther plant in 1945. This became a great asset to the Russian army and the Russian Military small arms design engineers, the captured people cooperated and it all started from that point in time. The Russians did not have the ACLU to worry about, Stalins word was final, it was either cooperate or a bullet in the head, they had no liberal press to worry about.
And certainly no video cameras.
The Makarov has a completely different type of firing pin design as compared to the German Walther PP, PPK, and PPK/S. The Makarov uses a free floating firing pin design and does "NOT" use a firing pin spring. The German Walther uses a completely different type of firing pin and it utilizes a typical coil firing pin spring. The Makarov has a uniquely triangular shaped firing pin that is totally free floating. If you were to carry your Makarov pistol with a bullet in the chamber, the free floating pin could move about 1/16 of an inch and its limited free travel is so slight there is no way I can ever forsee an accidental discharge with this design.
I have had people call me many times being concerned about this design. I do not see a problem, being as conservative and as cautious as I am, I am not the least bit worried about this firing pin design. I do not see a problem. So the more I point out the differences between the Makarov and the Walther you are getting to see that there are very few common parts after I have explained it to you in complete detail. These Two different pistols are worlds apart.
The thumb safety of the Makarov is brutal and trying to move it up and down is very difficult. I will explain why, the Russian designer decided to use a piece of hardened spring steel wire that is inserted in to the inside of the thumb safety and rides in the detents of the slide. This decision had to be to save money in manufacturing. They should have used a ball bearing or a spring activated pin detent. This can all be corrected and smoothed out.
The operation of the Makarov thumb safety is similar to the Colt 1911 pistol. When the thumb safety is in the "UP" position it is in the safe mode, and when it is in the "DOWN" position it is in the firing mode and good to go by just pulling the trigger.
The flat leaf mainspring is an ingenious design and it does a number of things. The largest leaf operates the hammer, looking from the rear it is on the left side. The thinner leaf spring leg which is on the right also looking from the rear operates the trigger bar assembly. The very bottom of the main spring is used as a magazine catch, this retains the magazine in the pistol.
A separate part called the mainspring clamp secures the mainspring in place against the rear of the frame. This clamp has a hole so that when the mainspring clamp is in place, and the grip is installed which is actually a one piece wrap around design that slides into place from the rear. The unusual looking grip screw is actually screwed through the grip, through the hole in the mainspring clamp and threaded directly into the FRAME which is at the very rear of the frame. The only major problem you would ever have is if you buy an after market grip and the screw turns in to deep it could bind your magazine from either entering the magazine well, because the screw is in to deep and or you will not be able to remove your magazine unless you back out the grip screw a little, by turning it counter clockwise.
So now you see even more proof that there is no similarity to the Walther design beyond the very few things I have already mentioned early on, as some ignorant people would have you believe.
There are some after market grips that are sold for these Makarovs, but they are too thick for my application of a concealed carry handgun. I took the original grips on my chrome plated Makarov and removed the lanyard ring off the grip and the Russian symbols and totally recontoured it to my hand, then I blackened it and then used fiberglass to refinish it. My Russian Makarov is beautiful and its picture has been in many published gun magazines. As you can now see Nickolai Makarov was a truly brilliant handgun designer.
Please Note: Tomorrow, Makarov - Part 5 . This will be Makarov week and I am sure by now you realize I know a great deal about handguns as I work on over 100 different models. I will not be teaching anyone what I know other than what I write about in these commentaries. It all goes to the grave with me. Please print anything that interests you and save it for future reference. I have quite a bit more to write about this Makarov pistol.
POINT OF NOTE: I am of 100% Russian ancestry, My Grandfather was in the Army of the Czar in approx. the year 1890.
Friday, November 19, 2004
Makarov - Part 5
I have decided to write this continuation a little earlier than usual. I want to start this segment with a list of the Makarov parts so you can see what the Russian design engineers have accomplished with so few parts. This is remarkable.
Parts for the Makarov are as follows; ( I have used the non Russian model for this list, using fixed sights)
3. Extractor plunger
4. Extractor spring
5. Fixed rear sight
6. Firing pin
7. Thumb safety
8. Thumb safety detent spring
9. Recoil spring
10. Slide stop and ejector
13. Sear Spring
14. Trigger bar assembly
17. Trigger guard
18. Trigger guard pin
19. Trigger guard spring
20. Trigger guard spring plunger
21. Magazine assembly
23. Mainspring clamp
25. Grip bushing
26. Grip screw
27. Barrel pin
The following is the disassembly procedure for cleaning and field stripping.
You must always make sure the pistol is unloaded. Safety must come first, Always, repeat, Always remove the magazine before you rack the slide to empty the pistol of any cartridges.
You are going to pull the front portion of the trigger guard down and push it over very little to either side and let it rest on the frame while it remains in the down position. Now you will pull the slide all the way to the rear and lift up the back end of the rear of the slide and you will be able to now ease the slide slowly forward and off the frame. With the help of the recoil spring, it will have helped you guide the slide off the front of the barrel.
You can remove the recoil spring off the fixed barrel. To remove the grip off the frame you must remove the grip screw by turning it counter clockwise. When the screw has been removed, pull the one piece grip straight back off the frame.
YOU HAVE NOW FIELD STRIPPED THE MAKAROV PISTOL.
The Makarov can now be cleaned executing this procedure and no further disassembly is required for the average person that justs wants to clean and maintain their pistol by cleaning it and replacing the lubrication.
At this point I would clean everything using LPS MICRO X contact cleaner and when it is totally clean I would re lube all the contact and moving parts using Militec gun oil. Be sure to clean the chrome lined bore using the proper cleaning rod and jag. Use a bore cleaner and be sure all fouling is removed from the bore.
I use a VERY thin film of lithium base Militec grease on the rails. DO NOT APPLY ANY LUBRICANT OF ANY KIND ON THE BREECH FACE OR THE EXTRACTOR. Spray the Micro X cleaner into the magazine using the 5 inch red spout that comes with each can, until it runs clean. DO NOT PUT ANY LUBRICATION IN THE MAGAZINE.
If you have a blued pistol you can wipe it down with a Sentry Tuff Cloth that will prevent rust.
IN MY NEXT COMMENTARY I WILL TELL YOU HOW TO DETAIL STRIP THE ENTIRE PISTOL. I WILL GO SLOW AND I WILL BE VERY CLEAR SO YOU WILL UNDERSTAND EVERY THING IN DETAIL. I INTENTIONALLY LISTED ALL THE PARTS AND NUMBERED THEM, SO IN CASE I HAVE TO REFER TO THEM FOR CLARITY. THERE ARE VERY FEW SEMI AUTO PISTOLS THAT I KNOW OF WITH THIS FEW PARTS THAT HAVE BECOME SUCH A SUPER RELIABLE AND ACCURATE SEMI AUTO PISTOL THAT HAS BEEN ACCEPTED BY THE ENTIRE WORLD. NOW YOU SEE HOW VERY SMART THE RUSSIAN DESIGN ENGINEERS REALLY WERE.
Saturday, November 20, 2004
Makarov - Part 6
I have decided to continue this very indepth commentary and cover all bases so that you will know how to completely disassemble the Makarov pistol and we will go thru the complete reassesmbly. I do not plan on going into this much detail on future commentaries because with out drawings to show you its very difficult on my part. You can be certain that even though this is a fairly inexpensive pistol with approx. 30 parts, it is an all time world classic. If you own one its a keeper.
The following is the detailed disassembly procedure;
As always make sure the pistol is empty, "BEFORE" you pull the slide back to check the chamber, remove the magazine. This is a standard safety rule of practice for all semi auto pistols. The mainspring clamp must be pushed down to remove it, the hammer must be rotated forward while doing this. If the mainspring clamp is too tight, use a nylon or brass punch and tap it using a small brass hammer. Be sure to cover it with your hand or it will go flying.
You can now remove the mainspring from the frame. Your next step is to release the sear spring off the slide stop using a very small screw driver. In order to remove the sear and the attached sear spring, rotate the sear forward and line up the flat end of the sear pin with the corresponding sear pin hole in the frame and you can remove it from the frame holes.
You will now remove the hammer by rotating it forward so that the ends of the hammer pin match up with the cutouts in the frame that hold the hammer pin. One end of the attached pin is flat, it is a keyed installation. It only goes in and out one way, similar to the sear and its attached pins. They are one piece designs.
To remove the trigger bar from the trigger, just lift the trigger bar out after separating it from the trigger. In order to remove the trigger from the frame, you must pull the trigger guard down, in the down position, much the same way as you did in the basic field stripping operation. Push the trigger forward and unhinge it and pull down out of its recess in the frame.
You have now removed everything out of the frame, except the trigger guard assembly. I see no reason to go any further and remove the trigger guard unless you are preparing to refinish the frame. If it must be removed, a pivot pin must be removed from the frame which includes a strong trigger guard spring and a pin.
I see no reason to remove the barrel. There is a special press fixture tool made by Federal Arms Company that will make this an easier operation.
Now you are ready to disassemble the slide. In order to remove the thumb safety, it must be rotated ALL the way up and it will match up with the cut out in the slide and you can easily remove it. To remove the firing pin, tilt the slide with the muzzle end up and it should drop right out.
To remove the extractor from the slide, I always tape the slide with masking tape to protect the finish around the extractor. I put the slide on my work towel and using a small screwdriver, depress the extractor plunger and while it is depressed you can rotate the extractor out. Now you can release the plunger and spring out of the extractor tunnel assembly of the slide. The slide is now fully stripped, except for the rear sight and there is no reason to remove the rear sight. If you have a Russian Makarov with the adjustable sight I suggest you leave it alone.
All you have left is the magazine assembly and you can remove the plate on the very bottom (magazine floor plate) , now you can remove the magazine spring and follower from the bottom of the magazine body.
This Part 6 concludes the complete stripping of this very good pistol that is a superb design using about 30 parts and springs.
PLEASE NOTE: I will conclude this Makarov series very soon as I want to first explain to you the total reassembly of this pistol. At one time these Makarov's were very cheap, now that people realize how good they are prices have sky rocketed. I have always suspected the reason the Russian Makarov had an adjustable rear sight was because the US Government set up that requirement in order to allow the Russian Makarov to be imported. My opinion only.
Sunday, November 21, 2004
Makarov - Part 7
THIS IS THE LAST SEGMENT OF THIS SERIES. We are finally finishing this commentary about a remarkable handgun. We are going to discuss reassembly.
Start with installing the extractor in the slide, install the extractor spring and plunger in the slide extractor tunnel. You must be sure the claw is facing the breech face as it appeared originally. Insert the extractor by pushing the spring detent pin, (using a small screwdriver) in while you rotate the extractor into place. Remember to use masking tape to protect the slide.
Now install the triangular firing pin, there is no firing pin spring. The rear of the firing pin has a cut out that must be aligned correctly in order to allow you to install the thumb safety. The thumb safety is inserted with the lever above the slide and when it is positioned correctly it can be rotated down into position. The internal spring wire on the inside of the thumb safety will mark the slide but this is normal and it can not be helped. The slide is now fully operational.
We now go to the frame and install the trigger, pull down the trigger guard and push it over to either side of the frame so it remains in the down position. With the trigger aligned correctly insert it in to its respective slot in the frame, move the trigger guard into its normal position, which locks the trigger in place. You can now move the trigger in the rear position and connect the front of the trigger bar pin into the hole in the trigger. The rear of the trigger bar is the hinged cocking lever which is installed into its recess in the right rear inner section of the frame below the area where the hammer will be installed.
To install the hammer with the trigger fully forward, insert the hammer pins in their respective open slots in the frame, the hammer must be rotated forward to line up these attached pins in the frame cuts.
You will now install the flat mainspring. The trigger must be fully forward and the cocking lever placed in its proper recess. Insert the dual flat mainspring into position in the rear opening in the frame. The thin leaf of the right side of the mainspring (looking from the rear) will rest on the cocking lever and the larger leaf of the main spring on the left side fits into the hollow recess in the bottom rear of the hammer. Align the hole in the mainspring into position on the raised boss on the back of the frame, and reinstall the mainspring clamp which secures it in place.
Now you will install the slide stop / ejector on the left side of the frame. You will install the sear and sear spring assembly with the slide stop / ejector in place. Install the pin on the spring side first then the other pin and rotate the sear and sear spring toward the hammer, the right attached pin is keyed and lines up with the opening in the frame to accept the sear pin. ALL REFERENCES I SPEAK OF ARE VIEWED FROM THE REAR. Use a small screwdriver and lift up the very end of the sear spring, which has a bend for this very purpose, over the slide stop / ejector where it remains.
Installing the one piece grip is done by sliding it into the rear of the frame. Install the grip screw through the grip and turn it clockwise into the threaded hole into the frame. you must always check that the grip screw never goes in to deep in the magazine well or it will restrict the magazine.
You have now completed the installation of the frame and slide, and now you will install the recoil spring on the fixed barrel. Cock the hammer and leave it in the single action engagement. Pull the trigger guard down and push it to either side of the frame where it will stay temporarily. Insert the recoil spring into the slide guiding the barrel forward and pull the slide all the way back, raising the rear of the slide over the frame and push it down into position, allowing the slide to go fully forward into battery. Put the trigger guard back into its normal position.
The only thing left to reinstall are the magazine components. Insert the magazine follower into the magazine body and install the magazine spring. Be sure the magazine spring at the very top is angled with the high side under the front of the follower, you will now compress and captivate the magazine spring, protect your eyes, you will install the magazine floor plate exactly as it was originally by siding it into position.
Always check everything before you ever attempt to take anything apart. You should have an exploded drawing and a parts list of every gun you work on. In my case I often take pictures first or make hand made drawings when I do not have a second gun that is identical.
THIS CONCLUDES YOUR REASSEMBLY PROCEDURE AND ENDS THIS ENTIRE SERIES ON THE MAKAROV PISTOL. IT IS VERY HARD TO EXPLAIN ALL THIS IN WORDS AND I DOUBT I WILL DO ANOTHER COMMENTARY EXACTLY LIKE THIS BECAUSE IT MAY BE VERY BORING TO THOSE THAT ARE NOT INTERESTED IN COMPLETE DETAIL. THIS WAS A VERY DIFFICULT COMMENTARY FOR ME TO WRITE AND EXPLAIN. I GO THROUGH THIS WITH EVERY HANDGUN I WORK ON, AND THAT IS OVER 100 DIFFERENT MODELS.
YOU MUST READ PART 1 THROUGH 7 TO UNDERSTAND THIS ENTIRE SERIES OF COMMENTARIES OF THIS EXCELLENT MILITARY PISTOL OF THE RUSSIAN MILITARY AND POLICE. ANY QUESTIONS CALL ME OR EMAIL ME AND I HOPE YOU NOT ONLY LIKED THIS 7 PART COMMENTARY BUT ALSO REALIZE HOW MUCH TIME I DEVOTED TO THIS SERIES IN ORDER TO HELP YOU.
ALWAYS REMEMBER THAT I DO THIS BECAUSE I WANT TO HELP YOU AS I DO NOT GET PAID ONE DIME FOR THESE COMMENTARIES OR MY TIME.